Category Archives: Uncategorized

Do you get blisters on the gums in your mouth? Consider trying an SLS free toothpaste

Do you get blisters on the gums in your mouth? Consider trying an SLS free toothpaste – Many of us get blisters in our mouth and often we ask ourselves ‘Who have I been kissing recently?‘ or ‘Was the beer glass last night really clean?‘. Well think again – the sores or blisters may be linked to a very common ingredient in your toothpaste. More below…

 

This used to be my Mum’s favourite toothpaste – Gum sores made her look for an alternative

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer to listen to my electronic music album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

As a child whenever I had medical problems my go-to source of health advice was my mother. I recently popped over to see her and celebrate her birthday and not surprisingly we got on to talking about health issues. She told me that she had recently stopped using her life-long preferred toothpaste (Colgate) because she had heard that it can cause mouth sores.

She had suffered from recurring gum sores in her mouth for many years and had never thought it might be related to the toothpaste she had always used. Then she discovered that an ingredient in Colgate toothpaste called Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) can lead to something called Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers also known as Canker Sores or Mouth Ulcers.

Mum – Happy now the ulcers have gone

My mother changed her toothpaste to one that was sodium lauryl sulphate free and she no longer suffers from recurring mouth ulcers.

As I have also been a life-long user of Colgate (recommended by Mum!) I decided to do some research and check out why manufacturers use sodium lauryl sulphate. I was rather disappointed to discover that this ingredient does not really contribute to the hygiene of my mouth – it is added as a kind of marketing gimmick. It actually causes the toothpaste to froth up in your mouth so you think it is helping to clean up the ‘nasties’. It is this ability to cause a froth which also makes it a popular ingredient in shampoos.

Where to find the ingredients…

So what is Sodium lauryl sulphate or SLS? It is a cheap anionic surfactant – which means it can help oily things to mix with water. In other words it is a detergent and a popular cheap ingredient in cosmetics (helps remove oil from your skin) and as a household cleansing agent (for greasy kitchen floors). This is the stuff that Colgate-Palmolive (and other makers of SLS containing toothpaste) recommend you put into your mouth at least twice a day.

As well as creating the frothy feel when you clean your teeth SLS can also strip away the natural protective lining of your mouth. Your body’s surface cells secrete oily substances to protect the mouth and other surfaces from bacteria – these oily secretions contain natural chemicals which can attack harmful microbes. These protective substances are washed away by the detergent action of SLS (in the froth) – it also attacks the protective cells lining the surface of the mouth. This opens the door to bugs and ulcers.

Sodium lauryl sulphate (Sodium lauryl sulfate)

Like my mother I have also investigated a replacement for Colgate as my preferred toothpaste by looking for an SLS-free alternative. Manufacturers have a number of tricks to hide unwanted chemicals when listing ingredients on their packaging. For example sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) can also be described using a number of other names like those below:

  • A13-00356
  • Akyposal SDS
  • Aquarex Methyl
  • Dodecyl sodium sulphate
  • Lauryl sodium sulphate
  • Monododecyl ester
  • Monododecyl ester sodium salt sulphuric acid
  • Sodium dodecyl sulphate
  • Sodium laurylsulphate
  • Sulphuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt

(note: in the US the ‘ph’ in sulpher/sulphate/sulphuric is replaced with an ‘f’)

In the local supermarket I scanned the products on offer and found that Sensodyne Original toothpaste does not include SLS or Sodium Lauryl Sulthate in its list of ingredients:

See Chris Duggleby article on Gum Blisters and Toothpaste With SLS at RISKKOdotCom DSCF5484 (2)
List of ingredients printed on Sensodyne ‘Original’ toothpaste (note no SLS)

I should however point out that several other brands of Sensodyne Toothpaste did appear to contain SLS so it is important to be careful which brand you buy. When I brushed my teeth with the Sensodyne Original toothpaste it felt more ‘runny’ than the Colgate I was used to. This is no doubt due to the lack of the frothing agent – which does not help with the cleaning action. It is precisely this ‘thicker’ feeling that manufacturers hope will make customers think their toothpaste is more effective. As I mentioned above – it this a marketing trick – for the same reason a thickener is added to most toilet cleaners – people identify ‘thicker liquids’ with ‘more powerful action’. I do not recommend or endorse Sensodyne original toothpaste but to avoid SLS I will certainly be using it in place of Colgate in future.

See Chris Duggleby article on Gum Blisters and Toothpaste With SLS at RISKKOdotCom DSCF5478
Packaging for SLS free Sensodye ORIGINAL toothpaste (note other brands of Sensodyne do contain Sodium Lauryl Sulphate)

Health tip of the week: The froth in your mouth is not necessarily good for oral hygiene.

Safe brushing!

Chris Duggleby 

The Author is not professionally qualified to give medical advice – if you have any concerns about sores, toothpaste or oral sex please consult your dentist or doctor.

You can read more about SLS and mouth ulcers from the US National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health using the articles here and here.

It will be interesting to see whether SLS is permitted when Astronauts clean their teeth in space – presumably uncontrolled frothing of the mouth is dangerous in zero gravity?…

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of my other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some fun related articles:

8th Mar 2017: Nano Chip Cock Ring Detects STIs – Size, Thrust, and Speed – From Penis via Smartphone to Facebook

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate – Public Frustration At Austrian Article:

16th Oct 2016: How to Prevent Smelly Trumps – Scientific Breakthrough in Australia – Good Carbs Mean Good Farts 

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle finger – Fingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.

some here is some more serious stuff:

12th June 2016 Hospital Serial Killer – Super Bugs Created With Jumping Genes During Bacterial Sex

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap Allergies – Main Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

…please visit chrisduggleby.com for more Health Reports.

Advertisements

What is a mutation? How do carcinogens work? What role does DNA play? How are mutants made?

What is a mutation? How do carcinogens work? What role does DNA play? How are mutants made?: Understanding cancer is a key step in preventing and controlling it. The following article tries to answer these key questions using simple explanations and pictures. 

What is really behind a Melanoma?

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer a more modern listen try my album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

These days the media is full of news about how genetic engineering is being harnessed to create new ‘designer’ medicines and how we will soon be able to conquer certain genetic diseases. Do you really understand what this involves? Do you know precisely what a mutant is or how it is made? What is DNA and what is it about DNA that causes mutations and genetic diseases? In this article I hope to provide answers to some of these questions.

First of all let me explain my background. My career started many years ago in research making mutations in bacteria for the UK’s largest chemical company. I had previously qualified from Manchester University Medical School’s Bacteriology and Virology Department. My bacteria used methanol – a simple alcohol made from natural gas –  as their source of energy and food.

Methanol The Alcohol Used to Provide Energy for Psodomy
Methanol The Alcohol Used to Provide Energy for Psodomy

The bug had a rather long name (Pseudomonas methylotrophus) which, for ease of communication, I shortened to ‘Psodomy‘. I tried to make mutations that would make Psodomy produce essentialamino acids. We need amino acids as our building blocks for proteins – humans can make lots of amino acids themselves. However we can’t make a few amino acids and therefore we need them in our diet – these are the essential amino acids. The strategy was to use Psodomy to turn natural gas into essential amino acids – my chance to help solve World hunger.

We grew Psodomy in a large fermentation vessel – this meant we could put methanol in one end and drain off our protein (called ‘single cell protein‘) using a tap at the other end. Actually our fermentation vessel (see photo below) was so large it received the ‘Erection of the Year‘ award when it was installed near our labs in Billingham (North of England). This was in 1979 (here’s the link to the mega erection story in New Scientist magazine – its on page 840 at the bottom).

1979 'Erection of the Year': ICI Billingham's Single Cell Protein (Pruteen) Fermentation Reator
1979 ‘Erection of the Year‘: ICI Billingham’s Single Cell Protein (Pruteen) Fermentation Reactor

Let me now explain some basic facts that will help you to understand what mutants are and how we can make them. Put very simply a mutant is a living thing that has a mutation. A mutation is a change in the DNA of the organism. DNA is what our genes are made of – it is passed down from generation to generation. Things that can change this DNA can cause mutations (and therefore make mutants). These things are called mutagens. So what is this DNA?

DNA is simply a very, very, very long molecule. If you didn’t do chemistry at school all you need to know is that everything in the world is made up of atoms (think of these as incredibly small bits of ‘stuff’). These atoms can join together to make molecules – for example plastics are very long molecules or chains of the same repeating group of atoms. Although we think we are clever because we can make plastics evolution beat us to it – all living things contain lots of very long chains of atoms joined into molecules.

Repeating units in a typical plastic Polyethylene
Repeating units in a typical (rather boring) man-made plastic Polyethylene

Whereas plastics have identical repeating units of atoms along their chains living things build much more variety into their molecular chains. If you think of plastics as chains of identical glass beads – then the molecules in living things would be made up of beads of many different colours, sizes and shapes. A typical living molecular chain is a protein and by combining its ‘beads’ (called amino-acids) in different ways each protein has a unique shape which helps it do some very useful jobs. This is why proteins make up the machinery used by every cell in our body. For example they help us break down foods (enzymes), carry oxygen in the blood (haemoglobin), cause muscle cells to contract, transmit electrical signals down nerves and identifying harmful microbes (antibodies).

The protein haemoglobin - here changing its shape as it captures oxygen in the body
The (much more exciting) natural protein haemoglobin – In this GIF it is changing its shape as it captures oxygen in the body

DNA is also a living long chain molecule but its shape is more fixed than most proteins. If we could see a DNA molecule (we can’t – it is too small) we would see what looks like a twisted ladder – each leg of the ladder is a long molecular chain of DNA. This structure is referred to as a double helix (‘double’ because it involves two very long chains of DNA). This structure is very important because each rung on this ladder contains the ‘letters‘ of DNA’s simple 4 letter alphabet.

DNA's Twisting ladder (Double helix) Structure
Moving GIF showing DNA’s twisted ladder (double helix) structure. The letters/words of the genetic instruction manual are written along each leg of the ladder (one letter on each side of every rung).

Why does DNA need an alphabet? This is because DNA is the instruction manual for everything that goes on in a living organism. It doesn’t matter whether you are a bacteria, a plant or an animal – the instructions for making everything you need to live is stored in this DNA instruction manual. The instructions are written using DNA’s simple 4 letter alphabet – and every word in the manual is precisely 3 letters long (the DNA letters are called ‘bases‘).

Guanine one of the bases or letters used by DNA when it writes your body's instruction manual
Guanine one of the bases or ‘letters’ used by DNA to write your body’s instruction manual

Evolution was much more organised than humans when it designed its language – humans have loads of languages, loads of alphabets and our words can be almost any number of letters long. In nature all instructions are written on DNA using the same alphabet of only 4 letters and the same vocabulary of 3 letter words. No need for Google Translate here! This means we can put DNA words from humans into bacteria and they can be read by the bacteria to make human proteins (…and viruses can insert their words into human cells and these cells read them and make the ‘virus’ proteins – by using the same language the viruses ‘hack‘ into the cell’s software and hardware systems).

So what do these 3 letter DNA words mean? Well I mentioned above that proteins are made from amino acids (the ‘beads‘). There are over 20 amino acids – and this same pool of amino acid beads is used in all living things. Each of DNA’s 3 letter words signifies one amino acid. Going back to the description of a protein being a chain of many different kinds of beads (amino acids) – the precise names and order of these amino acids is written in the DNA instruction manual (along the ladder) using the 3 letter words. For example:

DNA word TAC instructs a cell to add amino-acid Tyrosine when it makes a protein (in TAC the T, A, and C are abbreviations for the DNA letters, or bases, Thymine, Adenine and Cytosine).

Protein Building Block: Amino Acid Tyrosine which is coded for by the DNA word TAC
Protein Building Block: Amino Acid Tyrosine which is coded for by the DNA ‘word’ TAC

We think we are clever because we have made computers with software (instruction manuals) using a binary (2 letter) code which can produce useful programmes for word processing, spread sheets, graphics etc. Well evolution has gone much further – it goes straight from the software (written on the DNA) to making 3 dimensional machinery parts (proteins). DNA also stores the instructions for putting these machinery parts together and controls when to turn the machines on and off and how quickly they need to run.

You will appreciate from this that the precise instructions contained along the DNA molecule are very important. Any mistakes in how these instructions are written could really mess up our ‘living’ machinery and all the processes that control it. These mistakes are what we call ‘mutations’ and a typical result of a mistake in the DNA’s instruction manual can totally screw-up a cell’s control system and lead to uncontrolled cell growth or cancer (and a huge number of other diseases).

As I explained above the first word in the DNA word TAC is the base Thymine:

DAN Base Thymine (the 'T' in the code TAC which signals for amino acid Tyrosine to be put into a protein)
DNA Base Thymine (the ‘T‘ in the DNA word TAC which signals for amino acid Tyrosine to be put into a protein)

Using the example above if we change the word TAC into GAC the wrong amino acid is added to the protein. This happens when the letter T (DNA base Thymine) is replaced by the letter G (DNA base Guanine).

TAC = amino acid Tyrosine

GAC = Aspartic Acid – A very different kind of Amino Acid

As a result of this single letter ‘spelling mistake’ the protein will have a different shape and different chemical properties. The machine may not work well, it may not work at all or it may do something completely different. Think of a cog in a piece of clockwork  if one of its teeth is bent it will probably not perform properly. In our day-to-day life we see many results of mutations in DNA (and therefore in the operation of proteins) – one common example is colourblindness:

Can you see the number? This is a common test for colourblindness which can by due to a mutation on the X chromosome.
Can you see the number? This is a common test for colourblindness which can by due to a mutation on the X chromosome.

To make a mutant you change the words on the DNA molecule. This can be done as above by just changing single letters or by changing several words. The changes can be replacements with different letters or words or they can be deletions – a bit like when you cut and paste or delete in your word processing programme. The body has its own very sophisticated repair systems which it uses to fix mistakes when they occur in DNA. These mistakes may happen at random, or be caused by chemicals (mutagens/carcinogens), radiation (like when we lie out in the sun) or viruses. Viruses take over the cell’s systems when they infect it and sometimes they can ‘insert’ their own DNA into our DNA. This happens, for example, in some cancers.

When we try to make mutants of bugs in the lab we use the same kind of approaches. We can, for example, use mutation causing chemicals, radiation or even viruses (there are special viruses called bacteriophages that attack bacteria). When I worked with Psodomy I used UV radiation – effectively forcing the bugs to lie under a very powerful sun lamp. The idea was to create so many mutations that the bugs’ own DNA repair systems couldn’t fix the damage.

The rather crude strategy was to take a load of mutants and then grow them in a food bath that didn’t contain a specific essential amino acid. If the bug could grow in this bath it meant it could make the amino acid itself and then we tried to find the ones that produced even larger quantities of the essential amino acid. Once we had a bug that made lots of the amino acid we could grow it in our fermentor (our famous ‘erection of the year’ vessel) and hey-presto you turn on the tap and out comes a broth containing the essential amino acid (clearly I have simplified things a bit!).

Bacteriophage used by molecular biologists to inject genes into Bacteria
Bacteriophage – A virus used by molecular biologists to inject genes into bacteria

Today’s scientists are much more sophisticated. They use (for example) viruses into which new genes (=DNA words) have been cut and pasted (instructions to make new proteins). These viruses inject the new genes into the bacteria’s DNA and with lots of technical wizardry the bacteria can be made to produce the new products (including things like drugs/antibiotics and chemicals that are essential to health like insulin and other hormones).

You will hear lots in the press about the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. This is a very powerful genome cut and paste system that was discovered recently in bugs and has been harnessed as the go-to DNA editing system for genetic engineers (more info about that and how it is used in Gene Drives in my article here).

So that, in a nutshell, is a summary of how mutants can be made. If you wish you can make some mutants of your own – just lie out in the strong sunlight and the radiation will create mutants from your own body’s cells. Some of these mutants may overcome the systems the body uses to control the cells. For example a mutation may damage a control protein that stops your cells from growing and multiplying uncontrollably.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Such a cell will then divide many times and could develop into a carcinoma/melanoma and – with help from the sun – you have made mutants and given yourself skin cancer. It could take many years to get this result. Alternatively you might try to be careful about over exposing yourself to the sun – just get enough sunlight to produce the vitamin D you need (or take a supplement).

Interestingly vitamin D helps to protect us from cancer so as always with health advice – it is best to avoid extremes in either direction (not too much and not too little sun exposure). Vitamin D does its magic because it is an antioxidant – this means it can neutralise chemicals (oxidants) that damage the letters in your DNA instruction manual. Every cell has a copy of this manual so every cell is a potential source of cancer. UV radiation from sunlight turns harmless chemicals into these deadly oxidants.

Keep healthy!

Chris Duggleby 

Oh and it you fancy a slightly less ‘academic’ video about making mutants click on the box below (to download it from iTunes use the link here) :

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of my other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some more serious stuff:

12th June 2016 Hospital Serial Killer – Super Bugs Created With Jumping Genes During Bacterial Sex

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap AllergiesMain Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

and now some articles with a slightly humorous angle:

8th Mar 2017: Nano Chip Cock Ring Detects STIs – Size, Thrust, and Speed – From Penis via Smartphone to Facebook

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate – Public Frustration At Austrian Article:

16th Oct 2016: How to Prevent Smelly Trumps – Scientific Breakthrough in Australia – Good Carbs Mean Good Farts 

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle fingerFingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of my personal site using the link here.

…for even more about me please visit chrisduggleby.com.

Health Risk: Can Vaccinations cause Dyslexia, Autism, Sleeping Disorders, Speech impediments, brain tumours and even increased masturbation in children?

Health Risk: Can Vaccinations cause Dyslexia, Autism, Sleeping Disorders, Speech impediments, brain tumours and even increased masturbation in children? In a world of fake news spread by social media we depend on the traditional press to present health information in a balanced way. The following report reviews a health article in Austria about vaccinations which caused a shit-storm in the German language media.

Debate about vaccinations and healthy. happy children

 

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Studio Valiumm‘? Here are the videos (you can also download it from iTunes using the link here):

If you have ever visited my site at ChisDuggleby.com you will know I try to present English language reviews of important news topics appearing in the German media (for more examples check out my Alpine Press Reports or my personal Blog).

Last week I almost fell off my seat when I discovered an article (17th February 2017) in the Austrian press portal oe24.at under the heading: “Natural Health Professional warns: vaccinated children start to masturbate” (This is my rough translation from the original german title: “Heilpraktikerin warnt: Geimpfte Kinder fangen an zu masturbieren“).

Title Page from online press article at oe24.at on 17th Feb 2017
Title Page from online press article at oe24.at on 17th Feb 2017

The original article has been removed – presumably following official complaints to the Austrian press regulatory body. Other media are still presenting a copy of the front page as they debate the quality of the article (e.g. the Austrian newspaper Kurier.at – link here).

The original article quoted a Swiss Natural Medicine practitioner who, it claimed, had warned parents against vaccinating their children. Apparently this natural medicine practitioner had noticed that following vaccinations children had to cope with side effects like dyslexia, autismsleep disorders, speech impediments/stuttering, and brain tumours. The statement that particularly grabbed the headlines was that after being vaccinated children would masturbate more often.

Rather than publish a photo to illustrate this point please make do with some ‘tribal’ music (available from iTunes using the link here)

According to other press reports the article on oe24.at did not attempt to give a balanced analysis of views for and against this viewpoint – this is presumably what led to the complaints and the article being withdrawn from public circulation. Oe24.at is well known in the German speaking world as a Boulevard or gossip/tabloid portal however many other publications felt that with this article it had reached a new low point in its professional integrity.

After doing a little more research in the German language media I discovered that the 54 year old Natural Medicine practitioner was qualified from the Homeopathy school in the Swiss town of Zug. She had shared her views with the local Toggenburger Newspaper. Roughly translated, these were: “Today I would prevent my children from having vaccinations. This is because, if nothing else, after vaccinations children can suddenly start to masturbate“.

To again avoid an inappropriate photo please enjoy the following medically themed video (also available from iTunes using the link here)

The homeopathy professional claimed this situation was an indication of the “vaccination illness” (although she did acknowledge there could be other causes of excessive masturbation and recommended these are also included in future research). If you speak German there is a video on her views in the link here. This article tried to also present the opposite view, for example, that 120,000 deaths/year resulting from measles could be prevented by vaccination.

The German Sueddeutsche Zeitung (SDZ) tried to also give a more balanced review with a typical sprinkling of Bavarian humour (they appear to enjoy having a laugh at the expense of their Austrian and Swiss neighbours). The SDZ explained that as well as masturbation there were a number of other childhood phenomena that might ‘theoretically’ also be linked to vaccinations – like:

  • the wearing of trousers or T-shirts that are too wide/too tight/too short or too long
  • the following of YouTubers
  • listening to pop music with too much/too little bass/beat/melody/guitars/keyboards/sense/meaning
  • using Headphones with the name ‘Beats’

They suggest that such traits in children should be added to masturbation in any serious study into the side-effects of vaccination.

Just in case anyone is offended by what they read on this page how about a nice video with a religious theme? (also available from iTunes using the link here)

To maintain balance the SDZ pointed out that the relationship between vaccination and masturbation had not been convincingly disproved. They reported that following a review of literature they felt they could safely claim that vaccinations in general led to children being more healthy. If they are not sick, children are more likely to enjoy the kind of things that healthy kids do like, they suggest, masturbate.

Their logic was that a child in bed suffering with measles was unlikely to be interested in masturbating whereas a child without measles would be in a better mood and therefore more inclined to have fun. So theoretically the vaccination could be held (indirectly) responsible for the child having more time to enjoy such ‘fun’ activities (the SDZ article ‘The truth about the relationship between vaccination and masturbation‘ in German is here).

Chris Duggleby

…and if you have recently had a vaccination the following will stop you getting over excited…my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (also available on iTunes using the link here):

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of my other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some fun related articles:

8th Mar 2016: Nano Chip Cock Ring Detects STIs – Size, Thrust, and Speed – From Penis via Smartphone to Facebook

16th Oct 2016: How to Prevent Smelly Trumps – Scientific Breakthrough in Australia – Good Carbs Mean Good Farts 

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle fingerFingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.

some here is some more serious stuff:

12th June 2016 Hospital Serial Killer – Super Bugs Created With Jumping Genes During Bacterial Sex

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap Allergies – Main Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

…please visit chrisduggleby.com again.

Painful TMD Jaw Pain After the Dentist And Stopping Breathing While Asleep

Painful TMD Jaw Pain After the Dentist And Stopping Breathing While Asleep. If you have had unbearable pain in your face after dental work read on. TMD (Temporo Mandibular Joint Disorder) is explained as is a side effect of its treatment that could lead to suffocation while sleeping (sleep apnea). A bout of loud snoring helped identify the risk.

You meet the nicest people when sleeping
You meet the nicest people when sleeping

This article describes some very unpleasant problems resulting from a dental appointment. An attempt to deal with the initial problem had a knock on effect known as stopping me breathing during sleeping. This is known as Sleep Apnea and in extreme cases can lead to strokes, heart attacks and even death.

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer to listen to my electro/techno album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

The appointment with the dentist that led to these issues was nothing unusual. I was simply having work associated with a new crown. This involved the removal of a large broken filling and grinding away part of the remains of the tooth to create a good surface for the crown. The scene of the crime was a molar at the rear of my upper right jaw. Having had pain during previous crown work I made a point of requesting a local anaesthetic. The dentist provided a temporary filling during the period in which the crown was prepared.

Dental Work Can have Unforseen Consequences
Dental Work Can have Unforeseen Consequences

A couple of days after the initial drilling and grinding work that part of my mouth became very painful so I gave up eating any food requiring strenuous chewing (and when I had to chew I used the other side of my mouth). I didn’t take any pain killers although I know from others that this can help in such situations. After about 4 weeks the pain had improved sufficiently for the dentist to attach the new crown. Following this (and a bit of strenuous chewing) The pain returned so I once again avoided heavy mastication so that the crown could ‘settle’.

A few days later any attempt at chewing resulted in agonising pain in my jaw (OK I do chew very strenuously when I eat – my normal diet requires heavy mouth work). More worrying I found that whenever I tried to sleep I would wake up in agonising pain, also in the jaw area. This happened when any part of my jaw was in contact with the pillow or bed as I slept.

When I was younger I slept on my side
When I was younger I slept on my side

I normally sleep on my stomach with my head turned to the right or left. I usually alternate between the two several times during a night’s sleep. This is something I have done for a number of years. Previously I had slept on my sides (both of them) but I found this often gave me back or side ache. Also when sleeping on my side I would often find that I slept on one of my arms disturbing circulation so I would wake up with a ‘dead arm‘. Somehow sleeping on my stomach was forcing my back into a ‘better’ posture and my back (and arm) pains disappeared. I also try to sleep with my feet over the bottom of the bed (where they stick out) which tended to keep me stretched out rather than adopting on a foetal position. I found the foetal position could also lead to pains in my side.

With increasing age I found sleeping on my stomach reduced back ache
With increasing age I found sleeping on my stomach reduced back ache (by the way – this in not a photo of me!)

Just to be clear – I am not someone who regularly suffers from back, side or neck pains. The description above is simply intended to explain that on the few occasions when these pains have occurred I tried to work our what was wrong with my posture in bed and fix it.

Following my dental experience I found that I could avoid waking up with jaw pain if I slept on my back with the pillows so positioned to force my head into a vertical (looking up towards the ceiling) position. Sleeping like this took a bit of getting used to but it did help to avoid the jaw pain and also didn’t give me a stiff back. This was presumably because my back was stretched out in a horizontal posture.

After a bit of research I realised that following the dental work I had been suffering from TMD (Temporo Mandibular Joint Disorder). The tempero mandibular joint is where the jaw is attached to the skull and together with the muscles attached to it this is the main junction involved when we chew (see picture).

The Location of Temporo Mandibular Joint Disorder TMD
The Location of Temporo Mandibular Joint Disorder TMD

There is a lot of discussion about what can cause problems in this area and what you can do about it. Rather than having a single cause this type of pain may even be due to multiple issues, some physiological and some possibly psychological in nature (for example related to stress or anxiety). It can also be linked to other symptoms like teeth grinding which can also take place while you are sleeping. TMD is considered to be either acute (less than 3 months in duration) or chronic (lasting longer).

In my case I did not remember having this kind of pain in the past and I felt certain it resulted from my dental work – other people have also reported similar problems after visiting the dentist. It may be caused by the long periods that a patient has to sit with their mouth in a strained open position while the dentist does their work. It might be related to damage, perhaps done to the nerve or other tissues, when the dentist injects a local anaesthetic. It might be due to trauma on the joint caused by prolonged drilling or grinding of the tooth. This trauma could be transmitted through the jaw bone and into the sensitive joint area (a bit like injuries caused in the knee following an excessive running session – especially if one is overweight, unprepared or runs on a hard surface). Of course being a heavy chewer doesn’t help – it is a bit like trying to continue running on an injured knee – it just makes the problem a lot worse.

I Only Wanted a Crown But I Got TMD
I Only Wanted a Crown But I Got TMD

As my research turned up no simple or certain cure for TMD I decided that I probably had the acute version and that the best approach would be to immediately minimise further strain on the joint. I hoped that, if this was like a knee injury, lots of rest and avoiding further strain would allow the body to do its own reparative work.

So I stopped eating anything that required heavy chewing which meant no salads (mine are usually very crunchy), no chewing gum, no muesli (especially the lumpy sort), no nuts and seeds and even my daily ration of 80% dark chocolate was taken out of the fridge to reduce it’s brittleness. Clearly my diet became somewhat limited – try living off mashed bananas, Weetabix and honeyed Greek yogurt for a couple of months. OK I could suck on the chocolate for a treat.

To avoid jaw pain from TMD I started sleaping on my back
To avoid jaw pain from TMD I started sleeping on my back

I forced myself to continue sleeping on my back with my head facing straight up. This was necessary because any contact of the temporo mandibular joint area (just to the front of, and below, my ears) with the pillow led to agony after a few minutes. The was the same regardless of whether I was lying on the side of the dental work or the other side. I believe this is because contact with any part of my jaw bone (left, right or front) would put pressure on the injured part of the TM joint even if the main injury was just on one side. Clearly the TM joint region was very sore.

I knew of an acquaintance with a similar more chronic TMD problem which also involved grinding their teeth when asleep. Their doctor had prescribed a special head-gear to wear in bed which forced the person to sleep in a posture that avoided contact with the jaw or TM joint. I wanted to see if I could adapt my sleeping posture without wearing anything on my head (OK – I was a bit concerned that wearing a mask in bed might inhibit my chances of a nice romantic relationship – the ladies I know don’t like that sort of behaviour).

I decided to change my sleeping posture to avoid wearing a mask - (this helped to attract the right kind of lady)
I decided to change my sleeping posture to avoid wearing a mask – (this helped to attract the right kind of lady)

With time I managed to adapt to the new sleeping posture. The fixed position on my back could become uncomfortable for long periods (like a whole night). I think this is because my body enjoys dancing around when I sleep. If I don’t dance around the bed at night my joints start to ache. Therefore some of the back ache that I had eliminated by sleeping on my stomach returned but this was much better than the jaw pain if I slept on my front or side.

The good news was that after about a couple of months the TMD problems subsided and I was able to gradually return to my rather chewy diet. My jaw continued to be a bit sensitive to prolonged contact so I stayed sleeping on my back to avoid the risk of a recurrence.

If you must power sleep try and find a bed
If you must power sleep try and find a bed

Quite recently (about 5 months after the original dental work) I noticed an unusual development when I was sleeping on my back. Sometimes if I had a little power nap during the day I would lie on the bed (face upwards, back down) and drop off. After a short time I would wake-up to hear myself making a rather loud snoring sound – something I had not experienced before. In addition I would wake up in the night during an unusually unpleasant dream (historically I have tended to be a ‘happy’ dreamer). My heart would be pounding like mad and I would be out of breath and breathing as if I had just run a marathon. Try to imagine you have just been saved from drowning – this was how I felt. In addition my fingers and feet would tingle.

As I am getting on a bit in terms of years I thought: “OK better get ready for a heart attack – check the last Will and Testament is signed and that the kids know I am leaving my body to medical science”.

For a peaceful sleep the airways should not be obstructed
For a peaceful sleep the airways should not be obstructed

After a bit of time on the internet checking how to subscribe to multiple religious organisations (spreading my options) I came across something called sleep apnea. Put simply this is where you stop breathing when you are asleep and although many people live long lives with this problem it can, in extreme situations, lead to heart attacks, strokes or even death. If you stop breathing for a prolonged period your body, and most importantly your brain, can get starved of oxygen and cells/tissues may be damaged and start to die.

There are many things that can lead to this condition but one particularly caught my attention – it can be caused when you sleep on your back with your head facing the ceiling. In this position the soft tissue in your mouth and throat area can settle in the back of your throat and block the ventilation passage effectively starving you of oxygen and causing the levels of carbon dioxide (the ‘waste’ gas your lungs try to expel when you breathe out) to rise in your blood stream.

With Sleep Apnea the airways become blocked and prevent breathing
With Sleep Apnea the airways become blocked and prevent breathing

Fortunately the body has various safety mechanisms. The increase in carbon dioxide in the blood acts as a signal which can make you may start to choke (or snore ‘aggressively’) to try to clear any possible blockage (I guess this is a defence mechanism from when we lived in caves – it prevented people from choking on any bats they swallowed while asleep). In addition your rate of breathing increases to try to replenish the reduced oxygen levels in your blood and your heart starts pumping rapidly to try to get the limited oxygen to the parts of the body where it is needed as quickly as possible.

If you have ever experienced suffocation I believe the reaction of your body after waking from sleep apnea is very similar. The same response mechanisms are triggered to try to get oxygen (air) back into your lungs. When you drown these automatic responses make you gulp water into your lungs. The tingling sensation I was experiencing in my hands and feet when I woke up was probably due to those areas starting to be deprived of oxygen.

Depriving limbs of oxygen can give rise to a tingling sensation. If you sleep on your arm you can wake up and it first appears to be 'dead'.
Depriving limbs of oxygen can give rise to a tingling sensation. If you sleep on your arm you can wake up and it first appears to be ‘dead’.

Needless to say I decided it was a good time to stop sleeping on my back. I have now returned to sleeping mainly on my stomach – although I do have short periods on both sides and on my back to satisfy my body’s need for a night-time dance. Fortunately the jaw has recovered sufficiently for this to not be too painful although it took a while to get used to it. I have found soft, thin pillows can help in this process. The upside is that I can now sleep through the night without getting a stiff back, arms, legs and neck. I am actually getting a much better quality of sleep and my dreams have become decidedly more cheerful (being a recluse this is where I meet most of my friends!).

I am not a doctor so if you see any familiar symptoms here and are concerned make sure you get professional medical advice. Some of these problems can have serious consequences and various forms of help are available. Rest assured – jaw pain is a pretty common occurrence after dental treatment and apparently sleep apnea occurs in about a quarter of middle-aged men (according to a US study). So if you also think you may have these problems you are not alone. If you want to share your own experiences with other readers please do not hesitate to use the comments section.

Peaceful dreams!

Chris Duggleby

One of the symptoms of TMD or Sleep Apnea is that you can feel very sleepy during the day (this is because of the reduced quality of your night time sleep)
One of the symptoms of TMD or Sleep Apnea is that you can feel very sleepy during the day (this is because of the reduced quality of your night-time sleep)

Ever wondered what life was like over 100 years ago? Why not check out my videos about the ‘good old days’? Just click below:

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of his other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some fun related articles:

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate, as well as Dyslexia, Autism, Sleep Disorders and Brain Tumours

16th Oct 2016: How to Prevent Smelly Trumps – Scientific Breakthrough in Australia – Good Carbs Mean Good Farts 

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle fingerFingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.

some here is some more serious stuff:

12th June 2016 Hospital Serial Killer – Super Bugs Created With Jumping Genes During Bacterial Sex

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap Allergies – Main Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

…please visit the Health Risk Knowledge Online (RISKKO) site again.

How Can I Stop Smelly Farts? – A Trump Solution Using A Banana – Odour Reducing Flatulence Foods

How Can I Stop Smelly Farts? – A Trump Solution Using A Banana – Odour Reducing Flatulence Foods.

This article describes Australian research into the causes of smelly farts and how to prevent them. Scientists working on faeces identified which foods to avoid to stop those embarrassing ‘elevator wind release’ moments. They describe the foods that improve the smell of flatulence. By reducing the release of Hydrogen Sulphide in the gut these findings are relevant for inflammatory bowel disease and bowel cancer. 

Smelly Farting And How To Avoid It
Smelly Farting And How To Avoid It

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer to listen to my electro/techno album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

The subject of this new research is flatulence odour, otherwise known as smelly ‘farting‘ or ‘trumping‘. We have all had the experience of being on our own in a lift (elevator) and ‘accidentally’ releasing a significant blow-out just before the door opens and allows another passenger into our ‘enclosed’ space. If we are lucky we may have a small animal with us and we can cast a knowing glance at the new passenger ‘Oh dear me ..Fido has done it again…..naughty boy!’. Alternatively we can look at the soles of our shoes to try and give the impression we may have trodden in something unpleasant on the sidewalk.

Smells happen – and usually at rather embarrassing moments.

Research by Chu Yao and her team at Melbourne, Australia (Monash University) has uncovered some important information relating to the smelliness of farts and more importantly how to reduce the unpleasantness of the smell. The smell when we pass wind comes from our gut bacteria as they breakdown the proteins in our diet. Proteins contain small amounts of sulphur which is broken down to produce the compound Hydrogen Sulphide. Any school chemistry student knows that hydrogen sulphide has a characteristic ‘stink bomb’ smell of rotten eggs (which is not surprising as eggs contain a lot of protein).

Proteins like eggs lead to smelly flatulence
Proteins like eggs lead to smelly flatulence

The gut bacteria do an incredibly useful job for us by helping to break food down into smaller chemical units that we can ingest through our intestines and use as energy or as building blocks to make bigger useful macro molecules. As they break down our food (in particular carbohydrates) these bugs produce loads of gases like carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen as byproducts. The nice thing about these gases is that they don’t smell. We release them from our bottoms when we pass wind (as well as lots of ‘smell-free’ oxygen and nitrogen that we simply gulp down when we swallow air with our food).

It is specifically the proteins in our food that make the smelly stuff. Unfortunately any smelly hydrogen sulphide that is produced can also exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease and increase the risk of bowel cancer. It is perhaps no coincidence that evolution has taught us to find the presence of hydrogen sulphide in farts somewhat distasteful.

Chu Yao got her team to examine the faeces from seven healthy people (This reminds me of the time when, as a medical bacteriologist, I left a stool sample too long in its sealed container before doing my bug tests – sometimes mistakes can blow up in your face!). Chu Yao mixed the faeces samples with cysteine – which is the main bit of the proteins that contains sulphur. You can find proteins, all of which contain cysteine, in meat, eggs, and dairy products – items popular with body builders who are well known for being smelly poopers.

Interestingly the ability of the faeces samples to produce smelly hydrogen sulphide was reduced considerably when they were also mixed with certain carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are referred to as being ‘slowly absorbed‘ because they don’t get fully digested in the top part of our gut (the stomach and small intestine). They move down to the large intestine where our friendly bacteria living there help to fully break them down so we can use them as energy sources.

Our gut bacteria breakdown these slowly absorbed carbohydrates releasing smell-free carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen in preference to breaking down the ‘smelly’ proteins. So what are these fart sweetening carbohydrates? There are two kinds:

  • Resistant Starch – found in potatoes, bananas, legumes and cereals
  • Fructans – found in wheat, artichokes and asparagus

These categories of food reduced the production of hydrogen sulphide from the faeces samples by about 75%. Basically our gut bacteria prefer to use these ‘clean’ foodstuffs and so when they are present in our diet they don’t have to bother messing around with smelly protein (they, like us, probably don’t like the smell: Hydrogen sulphide is just as unpleasant for most bacteria as it is for us).

The revolutionary thing about this research is that it overturns conventional thinking about flatulence. Previously people with stinky farts tended to avoid fibre containing foods which were known to generate wind . However Chu Yao’s faeces studies highlight that there is good wind and there is bad wind. Bugs in the gut that generate hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide – all non smelling gases – are doing an excellent job and although the farts may sometimes be noisy they are usually smell free. The team intends to continue their research to determine if slow release carbs can reduce smelly hydrogen sulphide flatulence in a controlled trial with volunteers suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

If you want to avoid smelly embarrassments increase the carbs listed above and reduce the proteins. Remember the healthy moto ‘Good Carbs Mean Good Farts

Chris’s tip of the week – shove in a nana before you take the elevator.

Chris Duggleby. 

For more info check out the original research by Chu Yau presented to the annual meeting of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia in Adelaide, October 2016

A Banana Can Sweeten Every Trump
A Banana Can Sweeten Every Trump

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of his other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some more serious stuff:

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate, as well as Dyslexia, Autism, Sleep Disorders and Brain Tumours

12th June 2016 Hospital Serial Killer – Super Bugs Created With Jumping Genes During Bacterial Sex

31st May 2016 Linking Poverty to Depression – Genes of Poorer Adolescent Children Permanently Labelled for Depressive Behaviour

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap Allergies – Main Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

14th March 2016 Eliminating Noisy Commuter Calls – Cheap Cell Phone Jammers – Hidden Costs:

13th March 2016 Bugs Evolve That Can Eat PET Plastics Used In Bottles And Textiles

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

1st March 2016 Ladies – upto half a satisfying sexual event per month but risk of side effects from “Pink Viagra” Flibanserin (“Addyi”)

14th Feb 2016 Breast Cancer – How Blind People Use Their Enhanced Tactile Sensitivity to Save the Lives Of Women With Tumours

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

1st Feb 2016 Sexual Competition Between Women – Ovulation Can Be Seen In The Face

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

19th Jan 2016 ZIKA Virus Epidemic  – Health Warning – Pregnant women should postpone travel to affected areas – Including Brazil 

17th Jan 2016 Bubonic Plague Special – Lice – Hosts for The Black Death Bug

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

8th Jan 2016 Cancer from Handbags, Shoes and Gloves – Allergic Reactions to Jewellery – German Institute Identifies Excessive Chromium 6 and Nickel Levels

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

17th October 2015: Health Risk: Vitamin and antioxidant supplements help cancer cells become malignant – latest research from Texas

31st May 2015: German Concern about Potentially Carcinogenic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmetics  

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

and here are some fun related articles:

19th March 2016: JoggersHow To Stop Dogs Chasing You – Research Into New Pet Friendly Technology

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

4th March 2016: Dachau Industry Park Evolves From Concentration Camp To Nudist Wellness Club (Brothel)

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th March 2014: Germany and Finland Joint Investigation: New Case of Sexual Cannibalism Including Self-mutilation (Castration) During Intercourse.

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle finger – Fingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.

How do Bacteria Like MRSA Develop and Spread Multiple Antibiotic Resistance?

How do Bacteria Like MRSA Develop and Spread Multiple Antibiotic Resistance? Sex plays an important role in the spread of bugs resistant to multiple antibiotics. Bacteria have jumping genes (also called plasmids or transposons) which cut themselves out of their chromosomes and are transmitted to other organisms during sex. This report explains how this happens and what we should do to minimise the risk. 

MRSA an Antibiotic Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria
MRSA an Antibiotic Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria (Staphylococcus)

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer to listen to my electro/techno album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

Most of us are aware of the recent development of killer bugs that have become resistant to many of the antibiotics used against infectious diseases. Our hospitals are favoured breading grounds for these ‘super’ bacteria causing them to thrive in the very places we visit to get treatment against them. Few people however understand how these unpleasant killers become resistant to our drugs. Where does the resistance come from and how can it spread between bacteria? Why do super bugs flourish in hospitals?

Over 40 years ago in 1974 Alan Jacob and Susan Hobbs published research demonstrating that jumping genes are transmitted between bacteria when they engage in sexual activity. Specifically they demonstrated this phenomenon in streptococci bacteria which normally live in the human gut. They belong to a broader group of microbes known as gram positive bacteria – this group causes many of the most unpleasant human diseases. Like humans bacteria store all of their genetic information in chromosomes. Jumping genes can jump out of the chromosome of one bacteria and then transfer into another bacteria as they engage in sex. These jumping genes can then insert themselves into the chromosome of their new host.

Streptococcus (now called Enterococcus) faecalis
Streptococcus (now called Enterococcus) faecalis

At this stage I have to declare a personal relationship with one of the discoverers of antibiotic resistant jumping genes. Less than 5 years after Jacob and Hobbs published their seminal paper I was fortunate enough to carry out a research project under the supervision of Dr. Alan Jacob as part of my first degree dissertation in the Bacteriology Department based in Manchester University’s Medical School. My own research used the same bacterial strains featured in Jacob and Hobb’s original work and I spent the best part of a year trying to better understand this phenomenon of bacterial sex and how it gets hijacked by jumping genes to create the killer bugs that are the scourge of modern hospitals.

So what are these jumping genes? In the scientific community they are normally referred to as plasmids or more recently transposons. In my last article explaining how turning off genes can lead to depression I described a simple way to visualise genes strung along a chromosome like a set of beads on a necklace (the link to my ‘depression’ article is here). Bacteria generally have one very large circular chromosome (‘necklace’) containing all of their genes (the ‘beads’). Each gene contains the construction information for a key piece of equipment needed by a fully functioning bacteria (most of this equipment is in the form of proteins – which are miniature pieces of molecular machinery).

Bacterial Plasmids
Bacterial Chromosome (DNA) and Plasmids (also DNA which may include antibiotic resistance genes)

Sometimes bacteria possess genes along a short section of their DNA ‘necklace’ which can cut themselves out of the big chromosome and create a mini necklace – a plasmid (see the diagram above). These genes, that are able to extract themselves out of the main chromosome (necklace), are what we sometimes refer to as jumping genes. They can literally ‘jump’ out of a chromosome and at a later stage re-insert themselves back into the chromosome (or into the chromosome of another bacterium following sex).

Plasmids, with their short strand of genes, can exist either within the much bigger chromosome or they can exist separately from it as a free circle of genetic material floating within the bacterial cell. Although a typical plasmid does not contain as many genes as a whole bacterial chromosome it can carry some very useful genes. For example a plasmid may carry genes which help a bacteria to resist being killed by antibiotics. It was this kind of plasmid that I investigated nearly 40 years ago. It carried resistance to the antibiotics streptomycin, kamaycin, neomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline.

Pili on the surface of Streptococci
Pili (hairs) on the surface of ‘male’ Streptococci

When it comes to survival bacteria can be very versatile. As with higher forms of life they use sexual activities to share useful bits of genetic information with each other. Often bacteria containing plasmids will have small appendages like hairs or tubes on their surface – we can think of these as the ‘male’ bacteria. The photo above is of these appendages or pili on the surface of the streptococcus I worked on in 1979 (sorry about the quality but these electron microscope pics were taken 37 years ago!).

If a hairy male bacterium (containing a plasmid) comes across a ‘female’ bacterium that does not have these pili on its surface they ‘get together’. One of the things I found in my research was the existence of a sex hormone or pheromone given off by the ‘female’ bacteria to entice the ‘males’ into conjugative behaviour. If the conditions are right the ‘male’ will then transfer a copy of his plasmid into the ‘female’ bacterium. In this way any genes on the plasmid such as those for antibiotic resistance can be spread through the local bacterial community (bacteria are not strictly speaking male and female but this analogy should help you to understand what is going on).

Bacterial 'sex' (Conjugation) used to transfer plasmids (jumping genes) with antibiotic resistance
Bacterial ‘sex’ (Conjugation) used to transfer plasmids (jumping genes) with antibiotic resistance

OK – this explains somewhat simplistically how bacterial sex works in spreading multiple antibiotic resistance but where did this resistance come from in the first place? To understand this we need to appreciate where most antibiotics exist in nature. Scientists in pharmaceutical companies spend a lot of time messing about with soil. This is because in soil there are huge numbers of different kinds of bacteria and other microbes all living together. This is not however a very peaceful co-existence – the bugs are highly competitive and constantly fire selective killer chemicals into the soil around them to kill off their neighbours. After killing off the competition they can eat their share of the nutrients (in fact they will also eat their dead neighbours).

Pharmaceutical scientists try to find and evaluate these selective killer chemicals produced by microbes. They hope to find ones that can kill disease causing bacteria but will not harm humans. This is how many antibiotics were originally discovered. Some, like penicillin, were simply products made by microbes that very effectively killed other microbes. Others were chemical modifications of microbial products which were more effective or more selective in killing their target organisms.

Antibiotics killing Gram Positive Bacteria growing on a plate of agar jelly
Antibiotic ‘dots’ killing Gram Positive Bacteria growing on a plate of agar jelly

I produced an article about 4 years ago explaining how bugs living in the soil had also developed defence mechanisms to protect themselves from killer chemicals produced by their neighbours (the link to my soil bacteria article is here). Scientists had discovered that the genes for these antibiotic ‘defence’ mechanisms could be transferred between bugs by – yes you guessed it – bacterial sex. Their results showed that antibiotic resistance found in bugs in hospitals was the same as that found in soil bugs. This meant that hospital bugs may be picking up antibiotic resistance by sex with soil bugs.

In the hospitals we have historically used our armoury of powerful antibiotics in a very uncontrolled and uncoordinated manner. Rather than testing each patient to check which microbial strain causes their disease and then identifying precisely which antibiotic kills that strain they have tended to use antibiotics on a try-it-and-see basis. Here they use the patient as a test laboratory – if the first antibiotic doesn’t work then they try another, and perhaps another until symptoms improve.

Antibiotics don't work on viruses like flu or cold bugs
Antibiotics don’t work on viruses like flu or cold bugs

In addition to wasting patient time and hospital resources each time an antibiotic is unsuccessfully used it increases the concentration of bugs resistance to that antibiotic. The hospitals are using patients as incubation chambers to select and concentrate antibiotic resistant bacteria. About 90% of the cells in our bodies are not human cells – they are bacterial cells that normally live in harmony with us in our guts and on our skin. Some of these bacteria will be naturally resistant to certain antibacterial agents and through microbial sex with jumping genes they spread the resistance to their neighbours. If we kill all the antibiotic sensitive bugs through uncontrolled antibiotic use the few resistant ones left will have a field day enjoying all the nutrients left behind. Before long most of the bacteria in our bodies will be the drug resistant ones.

Bacterial Cell
Bacterial Cell – 90% of the cells in our bodies are microbes which live in harmony with us.

Not only are we concentrating antibiotic resistant strains in our hospitals but since we also feed a lot of our farm animals with antibiotics we are also developing antibiotic resistance centres around our farms. Any bugs that happen to get washed out of the farm or hospital into the local soil (perhaps via the sewage) will then be able to transfer their resistance genes through sex with other bacteria in the soil. And so the vicious circle continues – mankind has taken some incredibly useful antibiotic products and effectively made them useless by uncontrolled excessive use in hospitals and by feeding them to farm animals.

The pace of increase in our knowledge about molecular biology is phenomenal and we are already finding that this knowledge is helping us in the fight against terrible diseases like cancer. We should however learn from history – it is over 40 years since jumping genes and bacterial sex were identified as important factors in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance in hospitals. My own dissertation was written in 1979. Today many of the pathogens identified in our hospitals are resistant to the main drugs we have developed to use against them.

Chris Duggleby 1979 Jumping Genes Dissertation
Chris Duggleby 1979 Jumping Genes Dissertation

The advance of multiple antibiotic resistance could have been slowed by:

  • testing the sensitivity of pathogens isolated from a patient before using drugs – only use antibiotics that work on that pathogen to keep drug usage to a minimum.
  • using antibiotics in controlled campaigns – rotating their use instead of using them all at the same time – as soon as the prevalent bugs develop resistance to the current drug you can rotate to a new drug and stop using the first one (until resistance levels in the local bacterial population subsides).
  • banning the use of antibiotics similar to those used in human medicine for animal farming purposes.

To see an illustrative video of bacterial sex (parental guidance not necessary) here is a link.

When I prepared the Duggleby family tree going back nearly 1000 years I was struck by how many families were nearly wiped out by diseases like small pox, diphtheria and plague (Link to the tree is here see pages 9, 10, 29, 32, 46, 78, 110 – look for the black boxes). Sadly as we come close to conquering the worst effects of some forms of cancer we may be faced with the return of some of these old diseases due to our inability to apply antibiotics responsibly. Of course we could provide drug companies with financial incentives to develop new antibiotics – welcoming in an era in which new antibiotics will be as expensive as the treatments for leukaemia or AIDS.

Chris Duggleby

Chris Duggleby 1979 outside Manchester Medical School
Chris Duggleby 1979 outside Manchester Medical School
Chris Duggleby 1979 Dissertation Summary
Chris Duggleby 1979 Dissertation Summary (from the days when typewriters ruled the Earth!)

Here is a link to the original paper in which Alan Jacob and Susan Hobbs first identified multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid transfer via conjugation in gram positive bacteria (‘jumping genes’). The importance of their work was recently (2016) reconfirmed in an editorial in the Journal of Bacteriology – link here.Penicillin see article on jumping genes and bacterial sex at chrisdugglebydotcom

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of his other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some more serious stuff:

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate, as well as Dyslexia, Autism, Sleep Disorders and Brain Tumours

31st May 2016 Linking Poverty to Depression – Genes of Poorer Adolescent Children Permanently Labelled for Depressive Behaviour

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap AllergiesMain Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

14th March 2016 Eliminating Noisy Commuter Calls – Cheap Cell Phone Jammers – Hidden Costs:

13th March 2016 Bugs Evolve That Can Eat PET Plastics Used In Bottles And Textiles

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

1st March 2016 Ladies – upto half a satisfying sexual event per month but risk of side effects from “Pink Viagra” Flibanserin (“Addyi”)

14th Feb 2016 Breast CancerHow Blind People Use Their Enhanced Tactile Sensitivity to Save the Lives Of Women With Tumours

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

1st Feb 2016 Sexual Competition Between Women – Ovulation Can Be Seen In The Face

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

19th Jan 2016 ZIKA Virus Epidemic  – Health Warning – Pregnant women should postpone travel to affected areas – Including Brazil 

17th Jan 2016 Bubonic Plague Special – Lice – Hosts for The Black Death Bug

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

8th Jan 2016 Cancer from Handbags, Shoes and Gloves – Allergic Reactions to Jewellery – German Institute Identifies Excessive Chromium 6 and Nickel Levels

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

17th October 2015: Health Risk: Vitamin and antioxidant supplements help cancer cells become malignant – latest research from Texas

31st May 2015: German Concern about Potentially Carcinogenic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmetics  

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

and here are some fun related articles:

19th March 2016: JoggersHow To Stop Dogs Chasing You – Research Into New Pet Friendly Technology

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

4th March 2016: Dachau Industry Park Evolves From Concentration Camp To Nudist Wellness Club (Brothel)

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th March 2014: Germany and Finland Joint Investigation: New Case of Sexual Cannibalism Including Self-mutilation (Castration) During Intercourse.

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle finger – Fingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.

Depression genes activated by childhood trauma – stay turned-on and passed-on to your children

Depression genes activated by childhood trauma – stay turned-on and passed-on to your children: Exposure to extreme poverty, abuse, drug dependency and violence as a child can activate genetic systems which lead to depression later in life. Once activated these epigenetic processes stay that way and can even be passed on to your offspring. New research describes the mechanisms involved and raises hope for new approaches for dealing with serious mental conditions. 

Children in US Depression
Children in US Depression

While you read why not listen to my album ‘Electro Baroque‘ (all tracks are also available on iTunes using the link here)? Classical music using modern instruments:

or if you prefer to listen to my electro/techno album ‘Studio Valiumm‘ here are the videos (also on iTunes using the link here):

More info about my music is at the dedicated website www.TRANSFORMATES.com

We all inherit a double set of genes from our parents, one set from our father via his sperm and the other set from our mother through her egg. These two sets combine in what is our first cell which then multiplies to create the billions of human cells that make up our body. In this way every human cell in our body starts off with the same two sets of genes (except for when we make our own sperm or egg cells – here our double set is halved so the cycle can continue when they meet up to create our children).

You inherit genes from your parents through the information coded in DNA – an incredibly long molecule that the genes are made from. You can think of DNA as a string of thousands of genes arranged rather like the beads on a necklace – each bead containing the information to manufacture a molecular component of the machinery that makes up our body. More recently we have discovered that these genes can be tagged or marked by adding a small molecular methyl group. One of the purposes of this methyl tagging process is to turn off the gene.

Turning off genes is important because not all of our genes are needed in every cell. For example the cells which make up the lens of an eye do not need to be able to produce the enamel which is normally found in teeth. However since all cells contain the same set of genes (in their ‘necklace’) they all have the instructions to make every component needed throughout the body. So to avoid every cell producing loads of stuff which would be useless for its specific job many of its genes are turned off as the body develops from the original single cell. A bit of the DNA molecule that is close to the gene has the ‘don’t make me‘ methyl tag attached to it.

Afghan girl begging
Afghan girl begging

When a gene is shut down using a methyl tag it usually stays shut down and even if the cell multiplies this gene can stay shut down (so all the new cells produced when this cell divides also get a methyl tag attached at the correct spot). This means that, early in our development, once eye cells have been tagged to not produce tooth enamel they and their offspring cells continue to have this enamel gene turned off. If this didn’t happen we might end up with teeth growing in the middle of our eyes!

Methyl tagging doesn’t just turn off ‘construction’ genes like those to make enamel or eye lens material. It also works on important messenger molecules that play a role maintaining our balanced psychological state. One of these messenger molecules (made by the gene SLC6A4) is involved in transporting the ‘happiness’ molecule serotonin which stimulates the nerve cells in our body (and importantly in our mind). If the SLC6A4 gene gets turned off using a methyl tag it will not be produced and can’t be involved in telling our nerve cells (and our mind) when happy times have arrived.

What do we mean by happy times? Well serotonin is produced in the gut when a big delicious meal has just landed on the table in front of us. It tells the gut muscles to start contracting so the food will move quickly through our digestive system and we can get the benefit of all those yummy nutrients. It also warns other important parts of the body ‘get ready – nosh is on the way’.

Serotonin also helps create a general psychological feeling of well being. This is important in evolution – it lets an animal know that tasty meals are good and should be consumed as often as possible. That’s why eating can make us happy. Problems preventing serotonin transport in the body have been associated with anxiety and depression – this is why you can think of it as the happiness molecule.

The Happiness Molecule Serotonin
The Happiness Molecule Serotonin

Recently the turning-off of the serotonin transportation gene SLC6A4 by methyl tagging has been linked to increased incidence of depression. Not surprisingly if you can’t use the happiness molecule serotonin you feel depressed. The levels of methyl tagging have been found to be increased when children had been subject to traumas such as childhood abuse or after they experience extreme levels of poverty (low socio-economic status). Once tagged these genes stayed tagged preventing the transport of serotonin which was associated with an increased incidence of anxiety, depression and related disorders later in life.

Last week research was published linking an increased in tendency towards later depression with experiences of lower socio-economic ‘stress’ in a group of 132 adolescent children (Molecular Psychiatry 24th May 2016: Swartz, J. R., Hariri, A. R. & Williamson, D. E.). The authors found that an experience of poverty in childhood causes increased methyl tagging (turning off) of the gene for serotonin transportation. They followed the development of these children, carrying out research at three different times, to demonstrate that this increased methyl tagging did indeed lead to an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms.

In addition to demonstrating this chain – poverty leading to methyl tagging leading to higher incidence of depressive disorders – the researchers also confirmed an increased likelihood of children from parents with depression also suffering from the same disorder. If methyl tagging is leading  to depressive symptoms this may well be being inherited – demonstrating what is known as an ‘epigenetic’ mechanism  for inheriting mental illness. A genetic mechanism is where information inside a DNA molecule is inherited – an epigenetic mechanism is where the DNA molecule has been altered by the cell and this alteration is passed to future generations. the use of methyl tagging to turn off a gene is an example of such a change.

This means that although a child may have a full complement of all the genes necessary for a happy and mentally balanced life some of these genes may actually be turned off permanently through poverty or some other trauma in childhood. The turning off may even occur to the DNA of the child’s parents causing the child to inherit its parents’ tendency towards depression. This could help to explain why some psychological symptoms like alcoholism, drug dependency, obsessive compulsive or anxiety related personality disorders appear to have a hereditary component.

Depression as portrayed by Vincent van Gogh
Depression as portrayed by Vincent van Gogh

I personally find this an exciting development – we are reaching a point with molecular biology where the chemical basis of clinical problems related to the mind and human psychology are starting to be understood. Understanding how conditions in a person’s environment or inherited from their parents are chemically linked to mental problem could help provide us with tools to treat some very serious psychological conditions.

Meanwhile on a slightly lighter note – Tryptophan, a chemical the body uses to manufacture the happiness molecule serotonin, is found in high levels in 85% cocoa chocolate (so is serotonin but sadly it can not cross our blood-brain barrier whereas tryptophan can). So after enduring all this scientific stuff why not treat yourself to some pre-emptive anti-depression therapy. Time to open up the chocolate!

Chris Duggleby.

If you found this article interesting please consider taking a look at some of his other recent reports on similar subjects.

Just click on the titles below:

…starting with some more serious stuff:

28th Feb 2017: Vaccinations Cause Children to Masturbate, as well as Dyslexia, Autism, Sleep Disorders and Brain Tumours

21st May 2016 Skin Cancer and Cataracts From Your Car – Poor UV Side Protection – Windows Tested From 15 Vehicle Makers

19th April 2016 Torture In The Shower – Face and Body Soap AllergiesMain Suspect: Pears Transparent Soap

14th March 2016 Eliminating Noisy Commuter Calls – Cheap Cell Phone Jammers – Hidden Costs:

13th March 2016 Bugs Evolve That Can Eat PET Plastics Used In Bottles And Textiles

3rd March 2016 Using Gene Drives To Change Mosquito Sex In Fight Against Zika, Dengue and Malaria

1st March 2016 Ladies – upto half a satisfying sexual event per month but risk of side effects from “Pink Viagra” Flibanserin (“Addyi”)

14th Feb 2016 Breast CancerHow Blind People Use Their Enhanced Tactile Sensitivity to Save the Lives Of Women With Tumours

3rd Feb 2016 Zika Infection Spread By Sex In Dallas – Earlier Sexual Transmission In Colorado – Detailed Symptoms 

1st Feb 2016 Sexual Competition Between Women – Ovulation Can Be Seen In The Face

31st Jan 2016  Bed Bugs – Insecticide Resistance – Arbovirus Transmission – Zika and Microcephy

19th Jan 2016 ZIKA Virus Epidemic  – Health Warning – Pregnant women should postpone travel to affected areas – Including Brazil 

17th Jan 2016 Bubonic Plague Special – Lice – Hosts for The Black Death Bug

13th Jan 2016 Kill Head Lice In A Day With The Newly Developed Plasma Nitcomb From The German Fraunhofer Institute

8th Jan 2016 Cancer from Handbags, Shoes and Gloves – Allergic Reactions to Jewellery – German Institute Identifies Excessive Chromium 6 and Nickel Levels

26th July 2015 Poison in your Washing Machine: Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Laundry Detergents, Softeners, Conditioners and Whiteners

17th October 2015: Health Risk: Vitamin and antioxidant supplements help cancer cells become malignant – latest research from Texas

31st May 2015: German Concern about Potentially Carcinogenic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmetics  

29th December 2012: Spreading diarrhea and vomit through the washing machine– The Norovirus propagator in our kitchen

and here are some fun related articles:

19th March 2016: JoggersHow To Stop Dogs Chasing You – Research Into New Pet Friendly Technology

9th March 2016: Penis Ring Emergency – German Fire Fighters Rescue Man From Painful 13 Cock Ring Torture: Vorsprung durch Technik and erectile dysfunction

4th March 2016: Dachau Industry Park Evolves From Concentration Camp To Nudist Wellness Club (Brothel)

21st June 2015: Bio-undies: Guilt free Passion with ‘Easy Emma’ and ‘Loose Harry’and Getting Rid of Garden Snails with Rent-a-Duck

4th March 2015: Hamburg Reeperbahn (St. Pauli): Germans install walls that urinate on passers-by

17th April 2014: Niche On-line Dating Services (Specialities: Herpes, Thrush and Genital Warts)

18th March 2014: Germany and Finland Joint Investigation: New Case of Sexual Cannibalism Including Self-mutilation (Castration) During Intercourse.

18th August 2012: How Bavarians and Austrians use their middle finger – Fingerhakeln: a men-only sport (did Arnold Schwarzenegger start training this way?).

You can also find some of my more humorous reports in the Alpine Press section of this site using the link here.